Pre-kindergarten refers to programs that provide a year of education prior to entry into kindergarten. Universal programs are voluntary state programs that are open to all age-eligible children. Currently, the majority of state-funded Pre-K programs are targeted programs that primarily serve at-risk children (usually based on low family income).
Research shows that Pre-K programs are typically of higher quality than other preschools or center-based programs and that Pre-K children are better prepared for school (Barnett 2008, Magnuson 2007).
The benefits of Pre-K are not limited to test scores.
Children who receive high-quality Pre-K have:
In 1980, Sandra Bloom, M.D. and colleagues developed a trauma-informed program for adults called Sanctuary. The Sanctuary Model is a blueprint for organizational change that promotes safety, healing, and recovery from chronic stress and adversity by creating a trauma-informed community. Exposure to trauma, adversity, and chronic stress are universal experiences affecting individuals, families, organizations, and entire systems and can be dangerous to our physical, psychological, and social well-being.
Understanding that trauma is prevalent is the basis of the Sanctuary Model. Not only on the people who seek treatment, but also on the people and organizations who provide that treatment. Over time organizations may become traumatized themselves, actually creating more stress and adversity, rather than less.
The Durham Connects (DC) program is a universal newborn nurse home-visiting program. It has been developed with a focus on increasing community capacity while delivering individual services to all families. It is designed to be brief and inexpensive ($700 per birth), and is delivered universally in order to achieve high penetration and population impact, as families do not perceive participation as stigmatizing. Implemented universally from the start, the program avoids decreases in fidelity and impact reported by targeted home visiting programs after scaling-up from smaller randomized controlled trials.
Children who participated in the Books from Birth program prior to kindergarten entry had statistically higher kindergarten readiness scores in language and mathematics than children not enrolled in the program.
Our analysis indicates that students who had participated in the Books from Birth program prior to kindergarten entry had higher scores in reading development in second grade, compared to students who had not participated.
BfB children are more likely to be in the strongest tier and least likely to be in the weakest tier of readers in 2nd grade.
The two subtests most fundamentally linked to early reading experiences are the two that showed significant differences between BfB participants and non-participants, namely vocabulary and reading comprehension.
These findings are not a result of group differences in socioeconomic status or gender.
Contributing Authors: Marie Sell, Doug Imig, Shahin Samiei
A Partnership between The Urban Child Institute and Shelby County Schools
In 2013, the Delta Health Alliance Parents as Teachers (PAT) program assisted 91 Leflore County families in great need. This program sends a trained parent educator to each participating family’s home each month to offer support and assistance to new mothers and their infants and young children. In the past year, parent educators completed 1,112 personal visits.
An Evaluation by Memphis Data Partners.
Of the most common team-based planning models (Child Welfare: Family Group Decision Making; Juvenile Justice: Restorative Justice Teams; Developmental Disabilities: Person Centered Planning; Education: Positive Behavioral Support Teams; Spirit and Healing Circles; and Integrated Systems: Wraparound), the Wraparound process is the most developed and the most researched. It shows that children and youth can be served within their communities, in their family homes, and in a manner that respects the dignity and importance of the family.
Since the ACE study (1995-97), a joint project between the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Kaiser Permanente in San Diego, research has shown that childhood trauma damages a child’s brain, impairing its development and function. These adverse childhood experiences are major risk factors for the leading causes of illness and death, as well as poor quality of life.
The ACE Study looked at ten different kinds of childhood trauma, in three different categories:
The more ACEs scored, the higher the chances for social and health problems, both short- and long-term.
As a result of the findings of this study, individuals and organizations, including schools, medical practices, and hospitals, as well as entire communities have been putting ACE/Trauma-informed practices in place. They have realized that the nation’s worst health and social problems may benefit from understanding that these problems could well be consequences of ACEs. Their efforts are geared to building resilience to counteract ACEs and strengthen families.